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AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary PDF of the author-produced manuscript that has been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication. Since it is being posted so soon after acceptance, it has not yet been copyedited, formatted, or processed by AMS Publications. This preliminary version of the manuscript may be downloaded, distributed, and cited, but please be aware that there will be visual differences and possibly some content differences between this version and the final published version. The DOI for this manuscript is doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2744.1 The final published version of this manuscript will replace the preliminary version at the above DOI once it is available. © 2008 American Meteorological Society Retrievals of Thick Cloud Optical Depth from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) by Calibration of Solar Background Signal Yuekui Yang1, Alexander Marshak2, J. Christine Chiu3, Warren J. Wiscombe2, Stephen P. Palm4, Anthony B. Davis5, Douglas A. Spangenberg4, Louis Nguyen6, James D. Spinhirne2, and Patrick Minnis6 Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 1Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center, University of Maryland Baltimore Coutny, Baltimore, MD. 2Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. 3Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore Coutny, Baltimore, MD. 4Science Systems and Applications Inc., Lanham, MD 5Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. 6NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. Corresponding author address: Yuekui Yang, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 613.2, Greenbelt, MD 20771. Email: [email protected] 1 Abstract Laser beams emitted from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), as well as other space-borne laser instruments, can only penetrate clouds to a limit of a few optical depths. As a result, only optical depths of thinner clouds (< about 3 for GLAS) are retrieved from the reflected lidar signal. This paper ...


Aqua Summary (as of January 31, 2019) · Spacecraft Bus - Nominal Operations (Excellent Health) All components remain on primary hardware. 16 of 132 Solar Array Strings appear to have failed. Similar failures have occurred on Aura. Significant power generation margin remains. · MODIS - Nominal Operations (Excellent Health) All voltages, currents, and temperatures are as expected. All components remain on primary hardware except 10W Lamps used for calibration. · AIRS - Nominal Operations (<10% of Channels degraded) - (Excellent Health) All voltages, currents, and temperatures are as expected. ~200 of 2378 channels are degraded due to radiation, however they are still useful. Cooler-A Telemetry, frozen since a 3/28/2014 Anomaly, was restored during recovery activities performed on 9/27/2016. · AMSU-A - Nominal Operations for 9 of 15 Channels (Fair Health) All voltages, currents, and temperatures are as expected. 3 of 15 channels have been removed from Level 2 processing. 2 channels (#1 & #2) are unavailable. AMSU-A2 Anomaly on 9/24/2016 caused loss of Channels 1 and 2. The initial recovery attempts were unsuccessful. The instrument manufacturer recommends not switching to the A-side to attempt to recover AMSU-A2. AMSU-A1 Anomaly on 6/21/2018 caused unexplained shift in Channel 14. Channel 14 data have now been removed from processing, and the anomaly is considered closed. · CERES-AFT (FM-3) - Nominal Operations (Excellent Health) All voltages, currents, and temperatures are as expected. Cross-Track and Biaxial Modes are fully functioning. All channels remain operational. · CERES-FORE (FM-4) - Nominal Operations (Good Health) All voltages, currents, and temperatures are as expected. Cross-Track is Nominal. Biaxial Mode is Nominal when used. The shortwave channel failed on March 30, 2005; the other two channels remain operational. · AMSR-E - Off since March 2016 · HSB - Non-operational since February 2003 anomaly 1 Aqua Spacecraft Bus Status (see Acronyms list at end ...


© 2018 The Aerospace Corporation 1 The Application Usability Level framework A. J. Halford The Aerospace Corporation A. Kellerman, K. Garcia-Sage, B. Thompson, A. Pulkkinen, and the Assessment of Understanding and Quantifying Progress Team CCMC workshop April 24 - 27 2018 Connections How best to find research ready for operations and operational needs where research can help. Barrier for effective applied space weather: (from the research side) 1) Finding and knowing best how to communicate with end users 2) Knowing what research will produce useful tools to aid decision making processes. 3) Knowing the requirements and needs of the user community 4) Advertising how our research could be useful Connections 2 NASA Application Usability Levels Proposed tracking method AUL: Application Usability Level An effective framework to aid in communication, track progress of a project towards completion, and advertise user needs and research capabilities. AULs 3 Application Usability Levels Background Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) "Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are a systematic metric/measurement system that supports assessments of the maturity of a particular technology and the consistent comparison of maturity between different types of technology. " - Technology Readiness Levels A White Paper April 6, 1995 John C. Mankins TRLs 4 NASA Application Usability Levels Background ARL: Applications Readiness Level 9 levels with three phases: tracks progress from research through testing and development to sustained use by an industry partner. ARL as a tracking tool: Communication Tool: convey progress of the project towards sustained use. Analysis Tool : assess progress of a project towards completion. Reporting Tool: convey performance goals and completion of goals to funding agencies. Diagnostic Tool : identify roadblocks in development. ARLs 5 Partner Demonstration and Transition Development, Test, and Validation Discovery and Feasibility ARL 9 - ARL 8 - ARL 7 - ARL 6 ...


NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center Partnership with NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center H.J. Singer and R. Viereck (NOAA SWPC) Outline CCMC 2014 Workshop Annapolis, Maryland -- April 3, 2014 · Complementary Organization Missions · Past Accomplishments · Present Activities · Future Challenges and Opportunities SWPC CCMC Using Models to Support Customers Testing, Evaluating and Transitioning Models of the Solar-Terrestrial System 1 Complementary Agency Missions · Community Coordinated Modeling Center · Mission: The CCMC is a multi-agency partnership to enable, support and perform the research and development for next-generation space science and space weather models. · Services include: test and evaluate models in support of the needs of science users and space weather forecasters; support Space Weather forecasters through transitioning of research models to operations, through model evaluations, and through the provisions of forecasting tools · Space Weather Prediction Center · Mission: To deliver space weather products and services that meet the evolving needs of the nation. · Services include: It is the nation's official source of space weather alerts, watches and warnings. SWPC provides real-time monitoring and forecasting of solar and geophysical events which impact satellites, power grids, communications, navigation, and many other technological systems. SWPC also explores and evaluates new models and products and transitions them into operations. 2 Past Collaborations (a few examples) · WSA-Enlil Improves Geomagnetic Storm Prediction · Numerous partnerships contribute to the success of this model, including contributions from CCMCs work on the cone model development · Collaboration on cone model fitting comparisons (ongoing) · Geospace Model Evaluation · CCMC led evaluation, in collaboration with SWPC and modelers, leading to SWPC selection of the University of Michigan Space Weather Modeling Framework (MHD) and the Weimer Empirical Model WSA ENLIL ...


Operational Metrics for Geospace Models - Status Report ·G oal: Validation of Geospace prediction models to determine which model or models should be transitioned Stopaocpeerations at SWPC in 2012 Airline Polar Routes T·oFuoricsums: Models that can predict regional geomagnetic activity ·Timeline: About 12 months ·First Steps: CCMC leads evaluation; Build on GEM Storm Challenge; Establish partnerships; Decide on metrics; Conduct evaluation Howard J Singer GEM Mini Workshop Dec 2009 Safeguarding Our Nation's Advanced Technologies 1 SWPC Customer Requirements - One Example Used to Establish Metrics that Represent Needs User Requirement ELECTRIC UTILITIES Timeliness Customer Rationale K-7 Geomagnetic Storm Warnings Minutes to hours Operators want as much lead time as possible, but any lead time is considered useful North America Electricity Reliability Corp. Independent System Operator Electricity Reliability Coordinators The Midwest Independent System Operator receives the K-index forecast. If the index is K-7 or higher, MISO notifies all NERC reliability coordinators concerning the level and expected duration of the specific event. These forecasts are shared with all power system operating entities throughout so that those power systems that are particularly susceptible to this phenomenon can institute preventive procedures Geomagnetic Storm Warnings/ Watches 1-2 days >50% accuracy Geomagnetic Storm Warnings (K-5 through K-9) Geomagnetic Storm Warnings (K-5 through K-9) Geomagnetic Storm Warnings (K-5 through K-9) 2-3 hours >80% accuracy 15-30 minutes >90% accuracy 5 minutes >99% accuracy Geomagnetic storm outlook 3-Day Real-time geomagnetic monitoring Every 15 minutes data for GIC confirmation. Various Power Companies Various Power Companies Various Power Companies Various Power Companies Allows maintenance procedures that shut down some facilities to be rescheduled, thus maintaining the full reserve for emergency situations. Bring reserve or maintenance ...


Science Advances Needed to Advance Space Weather Capabilities Mark Linton - Naval Research Laboratory A few selections from 2012 and 2014 TR&T Steering Committee review (July 2014 and Oct 2015): Fast magnetic reconnection ·Solar environment: explore explosive energy release, particle energization ·Magnetosphere environment: incorporate Hall and electron pressure tensor terms, explore driver of mass, momentum, and energy Science Advances Needed to Advance Space Weather Capabilities Magnetic Field Modeling ·P redict solar flare eruption - improve incorporation of photospheric vector fields and flows ·Predict solar wind magnetic field - improve solar synoptic maps, include key effects of polar fields (Solar Orbiter) ·P redict CME vector magnetic field at Earth - improve incorporate of B field in predictive ICME models Science Advances Needed to Advance Space Weather Capabilities Model integration · Integrated studies of magnetosphere-thermosphere-ionosphere system. · Synthesis of global magnetospheric models and particle models for predicting energization and loss of magnetospheric particles, generation of ionospheric electric fields. Possible Approaches for Achieving these Space Weather Science Capabilities · NASA LWS Focused Science Topics - Science investigations of large scale, cross-disciplinary space weather science questions. - 2015 TSC report: ask to work with users and modeling centers, such as CCMC. · NASA LWS Strategic Capabilities - Development and integration of first-principles-based models of the coupled Sun-Earth system. - Deliver finished product to community via CCMC or other source. · NASA / NSF Science Centers - To tackle they key science problems of solar and space physics that require multi-disciplinary teams of theorists, observers, modelers and computer scientists. (2013 Heliophysics Decadal Survey). The LWS needs you Submit and comment on LWS focused science and strategic capability topics by April 26, for ROSES 2017 lwstrt.gsfc.nasa.gov/ ...


Auroral Boundary From FUV Imagers for Valida6on of Auroral Products at the CCMC Yongliang Zhang JHU/APL April 14, 2016 Outline · Aurora observa6ons in FUV · TIMED/GUVI and DMSP/SSUSI · Auroral products - E0,Q, NmE, HmE, boundary, HP, proton aurora · Applica6on to IRI and CCMC valida6on · Near real 6me Observa6ons FUV Observa6ons · Polar/UVI, IMAGE/FUV, TIMED/GUVI, and DMSP/SSUSI (4) - UVI & FUV: filter based - GUVI & SSUSI: spectrograph based · The newest F19 DMSP/SSUSI was launched on April 3, 2014 · GUVI and SSUSI (PI: Larry Paxton of JHU/APL) provide - auroral images with high spa6al resolu6on - reliable auroral products (E0, Q, HP, boundary) - Both northern and southern hemispheres - simultaneous measurements at different wavelengths (alongpixel:12)2008DOY:099Orbit:342981200140016001800Wavelength(A)110100100010000GUVISpectralIntensity(R/A) O 1356 N2 LBHS N2 LBHL H 1216 O 1304 FUV Spectra and five "colors" -Rk(LHBLIVUG0.010.11.05002,51yaM49581:tibrO35:60TUhtroN60810021o57o06o540402002-04-0402002-04) )Rk(SHBLIVUG0.010.11.05002,51yaM49581:tibrO35:60TUhtroN60810021o57o06o540402002-04-0402002-04- FUV auroral images: TIMED/GUVI )ek(0EIVUG0115002,51yaM49581:tibrO35:60TUhtroN60810021o57o06o540402002-04-0402002-04-V 0GUVIFlux(.rgs/s/cm2)0010.010.11.05002,51yaM49581:tibrO35:60TUhtroN60810021o57o06o540402002-04-0402002-04e- Proton Aurora Equatorward auroral boundary The TIMED/GUVI based auroral model [Zhang and Paxton, 2008] can be driven by Kp or boundary Poleward boundary: polar cap size and total open B flux Equatorward boundary: magnetotail stretch Both of the boundaries are useful for CCMC model validaAon Poleward boundary Assimilation of measured SSUSI NmE and boundary in IRI (Kp =4.3, April 1, 2007, 8:59UT) SSUSI data in southern hemisphere Assimilation of model NmE in IRI (Quiet time Kp =0.7) Assimilation of model NmE in IRI (Moderate Active time Kp =4.0) The March 17, 2015 St Patrick Storm F18 DMSP SSUSI auroral images with global boundaries Storm-6me auroral ...


MARCH 17, 2015 STORM: SAMI3/RCM MODEL COMPARISONS TO TEC DATA J.D. Huba Plasma Physics Division Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375 2016 CEDAR/GEM Workshop Santa Fe, NM June 2016 with A. Coster and S. Sazykin SAMI3/RCM COUPLED MODEL electrodynamic · ( + a ) = S( Vn , J (t)) SAMI3 RCM HWM RCM STORMTIME TEC DATA longitude = 30 TEC SAMI3/RCM longitude = 30 DATA/MODEL COMPARISON longitude = 30 latitude = -5 (data: black; model: red) TEC DATA longitude = 290 TEC SAMI3/RCM longitude = 290 DATA/MODEL COMPARISON longitude = 290 latitude = 10 (data: black; model: red) DATA/MODEL COMPARISON longitude = 290 latitude = 30 (data: black; model: red) DATA/MODEL COMPARISON longitude = 290 latitude = 40 (data: black; model: red) SUMMARY SAMI3/RCM used to model March 17, 2015 storm quantitative comparison with TEC data model results agree reasonably well in the low- tomid-latitude ionosphere both show stormtime enhancement of the electron density in the mid-latitude ionosphere during local daytime / early evening caveat: SAMI3/RMC uses untilted, aligned dipole geomagnetic field; despite this results are good (offset model/data by difference in magnetic and geographic equator)


D:\ccmc\workshop reports\Luhmann_Bellaire_report.txt Printed on Thursday, November 29, 2001 at 13:28:38 Page1 Report on Last Session: Community Involvement in CCMC (Janet Luhmann and Paul Bellaire, Chairs) Janet Luhmann's part: In the context of the CCMC workshop discussions, the "Community" consists of three parts: 1) those who develop codes of interest to CCMC for its operational and scientific users, 2) the CCMC personnel who are envisioned as the bridge between code developers and prospective code users, and 3) the potential operational users and research users of the CCMC code library. Each of these groups has a somewhat different view of what CCMC should do and be, as might be expected. Part of the motivation for the workshop was to identify the most valuable and mutually agreeable role(s) that CCMC could contribute toward the multiagency-supported and coordinated endeavor to make both scientific and operational progress in space weather areas. From the the code developers' perspective, CCMC is in concept a very positive addition to the space weather modeling enterprise. Having their codes available at CCMC makes them more visible, more widely used, and better appreciated by the larger scientific community and the funding agencies. However, now that CCMC has made staff hires who are themselves space scientists, and is beginning to work with the first provided codes, the code developers agreed the time had come to have more formal agreements and regulations in place that deal with the realities of sharing major research codes still in development. In particular, code developers are anxious to have "Rules of the Road" for both their own interactions with CCMC, and for the general CCMC code library users. A primary concern of the code developers in formulating the rules of the road is that the source codes are at present too complex and minimally documented for others to alter without the developer's involvement. They also need assurances in providing the codes ...


LFM/CMIT at CCMC Progress and Challenges Mike Wiltberger, Pete Schmitt: HAO Slava Merkin: APL Erik Wilson: BU Frank Toffoletto, Asher Pembroke: Rice CCMC staff, particularly Lutz Rastaetter CCMC Workshop January 2012 CISM Coupling Framework · Needed to develop programming paradigm which allows for efficient coupling of models and is flexible enough to allow adding new physics and models - efficient transmission of information among codes - interpolation of data between grids - translation of physical variables between codes - control mechanisms to synchronize execution and interaction between codes - minimal modifications to existing code base · Intercomm - University of Maryland - A. Sussman - Solution to the MxN problem in coupling parallel codes - Addresses the control issues · Overture - LLNL - B. Henshaw & D. Quinlan - C++ framework for solving differential equations on overset grids - Used to handle interpolation between model grids CCMC Workshop January 2012 2 LFM Magnetospheric Model · Uses the ideal MHD equations to model the interaction between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere - Computational domain · 30 RE < x < -300 RE & 100RE for YZ · Inner radius at 2 RE - Calculates · full MHD state vector everywhere within computational domain - Requires · Solar wind MHD state vector along outer boundary · Empirical model for determining energy flux of precipitating electrons · Cross polar cap potential pattern in high latitude region which is used to determine boundary condition on flow MIX - Ionospheric Coupler From V. Merkin · Uses polar grid in ionosphere · Flexible boundary conditions · Can take field-aligned currents from multiple sources · Completely separates MHD magnetosphere from ionospheric calculation CCMC Workshop January 2012 4 CMIT Mass flow (?) MI Coupler (?) TIEGCM CCMC Workshop January 2012 5 TIEGCM · Uses coupled set of conservation and chemistry equations to study mesoscale process in the thermosphere-ionosphere - Computational ...

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